Fossil records go back 200 million years, long before the dinosaurs went extinct. Holly Fern. Aside from their frequent use in cultivation, ferns also have a surprising number of useful properties, mostly relating to food or medicine. In open coastal situations they are more scarce, but a few species have thick, fleshy fronds which can tolerate sun, salt spray and dessication. Many species of ferns inhabit the lush, humid rain forests of South America, Central America, Hawaii and Malaysia. Just down the road from the sanctuary, the enthusiast can find many more species that are not native to the Wellington region growing in the fernery at Otari Garden. As if spores for dispersal and sexual reproduction were not enough, many ferns and fern allies also have asexual means of reproduction that bypass one or other of the generations. Ferns are an outstanding part of the native flora. The fork ferns form a small group with very reduced physical appearance—they have no true roots or leaves, and the sporangia are fused into groups of two or three. It emerges above ground only in the winter months, and survives underground in the summer as a tuber. The trunk looks hard, but the inside is soft and pale. Usually only one or two fronds are produced each season, and the young developing fronds emerge erect or merely bent over, not tightly coiled in a crozier, as in all other ferns. They germinate in disturbed soil, spread rapidly by means of aggressive and long-creeping rhizomes, and form highly-divided fronds. The tubers of the introduced Nephrolepis cordifolia have also been eaten. Those interested in sustaining diverse forest ecosystems may find it useful to cut beech in July and August as it appears to reduce the percentage of sprouting beech stumps. Another 56 species occur also in tropical Australia, south-east Asia and the Pacific, 15 are shared with southern Africa, and 14 occur as far away as South America and the circum-antarctic islands. Fern distributions are, in fact, correlated quite strongly with temperature, rainfall and geothermal activity. The occurrence of tropical species in northern New Zealand leads to consideration of where our ferns have come from. A guide to plowed Forest Society reservations so you can recreate responsibly this winter. by Elizabeth Farnsworth. Ferns don't need to be watered daily and like any garden plant benefit from mulching. Epiphytic ferns -- or tree ferns -- grow on trunks of trees and receive nutrients from their hosts. Fiji, for example, which has a much smaller land area, has over 300 species, and Queensland almost 400. Find more prominent pieces of landscape at Wikiart.org – best visual art database. In fact, many ferns colonize recently disturbed and exposed areas such as scoured riverbanks (Reudink et al.,2005) or the uprooted pits, mounds and trunks of fallen trees (Peterson et al., 1990; Nadkarni and Wheelwright, 2000). The fertilised egg cell then develops rapidly into a new sporophyte fern plant, while the prothallus usually dies, its task of sexual reproduction complete. If the crown of the fern is damaged, these buds will grow out to replace it and may even give rise to a multiheaded tree fern. A Guide to Winter Hiking & Recreation, Forest Notes: Tending to Mount Major’s Trails, More Than Leaves Changing Outside This Fall, Originally published in the New Hampshire Sunday News. In earlier times, Victorian England went crazy over ferns (see sidebar, page 79), Melanesians carved statues from tree-fern trunks and Maori made the koru, the uncurled fern shoot, a dominant feature of their art. The banks of watercourses are home to three characteristic hard ferns—nini (Blechnum chambersi:), kiwakiwa (B. fluviatile) and Blechnum colensoi—and at higher altitudes the magnificent prince of Wales feathers fern (Leptopteris superba) grows at its very best in a permanently damp, dark environment. More than 50 per cent of New Zealand ferns have distributions that extend across more than half of both islands. This fern grows slowly but is well worth the wait. One word of caution: If you decide to look for ferns on your next walk or hike, be sure to educate yourself about tick prevention and do a thorough tick check when you’re done. Moreover, the absence or presence of spores preserved in various deposits of known age within New Zealand indicates that the first appearance of most ferns was well after the break-up of Gondwana. At the other end of the scale, the filmy ferns include two of New Zealand’s smallest ferns. Probably not their ancient lineage, stretching back far beyond dinosaurs to a time that is impossibly distant for most people’s comprehension. I would share photos with other fern fans on Instagram using hashtags like #Fernstagram or #FernsareFriends. Ferns Golden Grove is the pride of Ferns Estate and Developers and encompasses of Plots of land area of 2400 to 5000 sq. A robust plant, sword fern is among the easiest of all ferns to grow and has been used to serve many horticultural roles. Mountain Holly Fern or Rock Sword Fern, P. scopulinum is also like a smaller Sword Fern but is shinier and more leathery with spiny-toothed leaves. Fern - Fern - Ecology: Ecologically, the ferns are most commonly plants of shaded damp forests of both temperate and tropical zones. They are green flowerless plants with divided leaves that tend to grow in damp, shady areas. Autumnal forest ferns and mossy rocks amongst birch trees in Guisecliff Wood near Pateley Bridge Nidderdale North Yorkshire England Ferns in forest near Roztoka, Kampinoski National Park, Poland, Europe. There is some evidence for this explanation in that fern distributions are generally broader within New Zealand than those of flowering plants. ‘Ferns in the forest. It is nearly bipinnate with long hairs on the teeth of each leaflet. Potentially more serious is the kariba weed (Salvinia molesta), an aggressive weed of hybrid origin that clogs many tropical waterways, but one which has been largely eradicated in New Zealand by a combination of careful management and temperate climate. Athyrium filix-femina - Lady Fern; Botrychium virginianum - Virginia Grape Fern "Rattlesnake Fern" Dryopteris austriaca var. Whatever the truth about the origin of New Zealand’s flora, the undeniable fact is that this country has an extraordinary abundance of ferns that can be enjoyed by almost anybody of any age and fitness. Hay-scented, New York, and bracken ferns, on the other hand, are known as single-frond ferns. Photo about A group of green ferns in the forest. “Hello” waves the Forest Fern. * We’ll never pass your email address to third parties, or send you spammy stuff, we promise. By contrast, species with a predominantly northern distribution pattern include a large number of species that occur also in Australia and tropical parts of the Pacific. All are perennial species and they vary dramatically in leaf form. George Schneider’s Book of Choice Ferns for the Garden Conservatory and Stove, published in three volumes in 1894, was just one example of a genre that developed from this time. Above the tree line, ferns become a much less important component of the vegetation. Others, such as Hymenophyllum ferrugineum, grow predominantly on tree fern trunks and reduce transpiration by producing fronds that overlap one another in a similar way to what seaweeds do when the tide has gone out. Comb ferns are equally distinctive in being the only ferns in New Zealand in which the stalk of the frond (the stipe) is much longer than the leafy blade (the lamina) and often forks several times. May 20, 2013. Coconut Creek ( 26.229667, -80.186817 ) 2.2 miles. Northwestern Ontario Forest: Common Ferns And Fern-Ally Species. This low maintenance no-fade Forest F Nature printing involved inking a frond and using it to print a coloured image faithful to the original plant. Mix in compost and peat moss on sandy soils, and cultivate compacted soils before planting. In Australia there are 390 native species of ferns, 47 species of fern allies, 44 species of conifers and 39 of them are endemic. When Is The Best Time To Plant Ferns. This fern is originated from the Eastern Continent. Most climbing ferns ascend by means of a very long creeping rhizome which produces fronds as it grows upwards. The area is a steep-sided stream gully in kamahi forest, sufficiently high and shaded to be permanently cool and wet—a perfect environment not only for ferns, but also for mosses and liverworts. Explore the Wonderful World of Ferns! Bracken root was a staple food for pre-European Maori, and there are many Maori words relating to different stages of its growth that were used for different purposes. About 20 species, or 10 per cent of New Zealand pteridophytes, occur regularly in the alpine zone compared to more than 600 species of flowering plants (over 30 per cent of the total). Dogs are welcome at all but two Forest Society reservations. Ferns are extremely forgiving and have an incredibly strong survival instinct. Levine and other foresters are concerned with how everything grows in the forest. While many species are widely distributed, some are confined either to the warmer northern, or to cooler southern, regions. Others are linear or strap-shaped and continue growing on the soil surface for more than one season. And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features 2015 photos available for quick and easy download. Ferns can be found throughout the world. Wheki trunks are often cut at the top and bottom to remove fronds and roots, and then sold by garden centres for use as retaining walls. Its fleshy undivided frond, densely covered in fawn hairs on the lower surface, is admirably adapted to cutting down water loss in this arid environment. They initially produce tiny leaves while still attached to the parent frond, but later develop rootlets when they come in contact with the ground, either after being knocked off or when the frond droops enough to touch the soil. spinulosa - Spinulose Shield Fern "Spiny Wood Fern" Equisetum arvense - Common Horsetail "Field Horsetail" Equisetum pratense - Meadow Horsetail; Equisetum sylvaticum - Woodland … After a while, people began looking further afield for their ferns, particularly to the colonies. More familiar is the wheki or rough tree fern (Dicksonia squarrosa), which produces buds on its trunk. A few ferns are found in freshwater sites, but as with many plants that occupy such habitats their appearance is highly modified. In 2013, the Forest Society launched the “Everybody Hikes Mount Major” campaign to protect the trails and land surrounding Mount Major Reservation ... My two five-year-olds, newly initiated into kindergarten, reminded me authoritatively this week that it’s officially fall. Table of Contents. Today wheki (Dicksonia squarrosa) is used for retaining walls, and the ponga for making tree fern vases that are widely sold in tourist shops. Ferns generally reproduce by producing spores. Fronds decorate every tree-trunk and choke the floor of the forest, while stands of huge tree ferns tower over lesser trees. Table of Contents. The woolly cloak fern and blanket fern are abundantly covered in hairs or scales that reduce transpiration, while the rock fern protects its young developing sporangia by curling up its frond as the season progresses. Ferns have intricate life cycles and, unlike all other land plants, pass through two quite separate free-living stages: a spore-bearing stage and a very different sexually reproducing stage. Their varied forms are a delight to explore, their unfolding croziers enchanting and their common names, such as … Two Auckland dealers, Eric Craig, who had a curiosity shop in Princes Street, and Thomas Cranwell, who operated from Parnell, became pre-eminent in the field. Find the perfect ferns in forest stock photo. Mouki (Asplenium bulbiferum) and parako (Asplenium obtusatum) were used for skin complaints. Levine’s guide parses ferns into five groups with a simple key to help identify them. Emily Lord manages the Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests’ online and social media presence. Illustration by Adelaide Tyrol. We found that ferns, mainly Polypodiales, have developed diversified functional traits in response to forest environments. Though they prefer damp climates, they are prevalent all over the world, including the … And a handy new guidebook tells a lot about them. Plants occupying higher branches have less moisture available to them, and so it is unsurprising to find the leather leaf fern, which can exist on dry coastal rocks, also living happily as a high forest epiphyte. Additionally, most have fronds which curl up dramatically in dry weather, thus reducing the surface area from which water can be lost. Some 226 species of pteridophytes are known to occur in the wild in New Zealand. Karerarera (Azolla filiculoides) was rubbed on scalds, kiwakiwa (Blechnum fluviatile) was chewed to alleviate a sore mouth or tongue, while the root of rahurahu (Pteridium esculentum) was used to prevent seasickness and the ashes of burnt fronds to treat burns. They look like feathers. One family of ferns, the Dennstaedtiaceae, almost exclusively occupies disturbed ground. Often you can see fern clumps covering the forest floor under a canopy of Western red cedar (Thuja plicata). The diversity of ferns we see today evolved relatively recently in geologic time, many of them in only the last 70 million years. By contrast, 84 per cent of seed plants are endemic to New Zealand. Lateral branching of this sort can be finite, producing a distinctive shape, as in the umbrella fern (Sticherus cunninghamii), or it can continue almost indefinitely, with the frond forming extensive thickets, as in the tangle fern (Gleichenia dicarpa). One can almost sense a slight breeze emanating from the contour of the faux green leaves standing 18 inches tall in its decorative planter. The thread fern is an unusual plant, beginning life on the ground where it scrambles around until it finds a trunk to climb. Also in vogue at this time was the cyanotype process that is sometimes regarded as an early form of photography and led to what we now know as the blueprint. Also, some oak saplings are … Some have specific habitat requirements. Ferns are widespread in their distribution, with the greatest abundance in the tropics, and least in arctic areas. Several ferns were used by Maori for their medicinal properties, and much work remains to be done to investigate the efficacy and active compounds of these plants. Finally, there are the horsetails, a small group that no longer occurs naturally in New Zealand, but which is represented by a few introduced species that have jointed stems, whorled leaves and sporangia borne in specialised cones. Bracken fern is a sign of dry, nutrient-poor soils. je eigen pins op Pinterest. The lance fern (Anarthropteris lanceolata) produces new plantlets directly from its roots, and on wet rock faces colonies of plants can often be seen linked together in a long string. We will guide you through the wonderful diversity of ferns growing on America’s national forests and grasslands. No need to register, buy now! In order to maintain diverse forest ecosystems, disturbance-dependent species must be favored over beech and other shade tolerant trees at least on part of the forest landscape. They disappear as quickly as they came, but liberate large quantities of spores which survive in the soil until future disturbance occurs, or disperse to freshly disturbed sites nearby. 3-sep-2013 - Deze pin is ontdekt door Liz Calvert. In these cases, however, they develop into new gametophytes, not new sporophytes, but they are just as effective a means of dispersal. Less threatening are the now widespread male ferns (Dryopteris affinis and D. filixmas), royal fern (Osmunda regalis), which is well established in swampy areas of the northern North Island, and the ferny azolla (Azolla pinnata), which is common in slow-moving freshwater in northern New Zealand. Pillwort forms hard, bean-like reproductive capsules only when the tarn dries out, and its uncoiling fronds are therefore the only characteristics that betray its affinities to other ferns. Depending on where you live, ferns are just starting their fiddlehead stage, in the midst of unfurling, or growing tall. The plants have an upright habit and silvery grey fronds with burgundy accents. The greatest diversity occurs in tropical rainforests. I especially love it when the early morning sunlight pierces through the trees and finds a gentle frond. These books are now extremely rare, but they are interesting both for the technique and because Dobbie’s publication is regarded as the first edition of New Zealand Ferns, a book that became the authoritative text on ferns for over 60 years. ground within a forest and from forest gap to edge (Ellsworth & Reich, 1993; Hubbell et al., 1999; Szarzynski & Anhuf, 2001), the functional traits of ferns in res ponse to various microenviron - The tuber sword-fern (Nephrolepis cordifolia) produces small, potato-like tubers on its roots that will grow out into new plants. In addition to the true ferns, there are fork ferns, clubmosses, spikemosses, quillworts and horsetails that are collectively known by the title “fern allies.”. They lose water easily and therefore require an environment of high humidity in which to thrive, growing best in damp forest. There are around 12 000 types of ferns that differ in size, morphology and type of habitat. Often, the forest floor receives little light for young plants or... See full answer below. The kidney fern (Trichomanes renifirme), with its extraordinarily shaped frond, projecting clusters of sporangia on the margin and yellowish green colour, is a plant of international repute that never ceases to attract attention from visiting botanists. Redwood Forest , lots of ferns Diana’s property was beautiful and was just a few miles from hikes, beaches, and town. They are genetically identical to the parent fern, developing into new fern plants without any act of sexual reproduction. On the left, the underside of the fern, showing the evenly spaced sori along the margins of the pinnae. In addition, however, a new market was opened up producing albums of pressed ferns. On the forest floor, different ferns grow in specific soil types, making them an “eco-indicator.” It means they have specific requirements for moisture, temperature, or nutrients. Some other modern ferns include tree ferns, filmy ferns, climbing ferns and the royal ferns. You might be surprised to learn that, in terms of biodiversity, B.C. Despite New Zealand’s reputation as a country rich in ferns, the total of 226 species is not great when compared with neighbouring tropical areas. Earlier, in 1859, Thomas Moore had published Nature-printed British Ferns, probably the most accomplished example of nature printing ever to appear. The prothalli will develop within a few weeks as long as the soil doesn’t dry out. Others occur either in the wetter west, or drier eastern parts of the South Island. Ferns are happiest in moist places like rainforests, but can also be found in mountains, near coastlines, cities, and even deserts. As with ferns in the harsher environment of the coast, those in the forest also have different strategies for survival and have adapted to different microhabitats. I know of no other country in the world where ferns are so diverse, so luxuriant and so accessible to even the most casual observer, and it is easy to understand why they have become part of our national identity. Maidenhair fern is also the only fern unique to the Northeast. They can grow on other plants without harming the plant. Gemmae are also formed on the gametophytes of several ferns, especially those that consist of branching filaments, such as the finger ferns (Grammitis species) or some filmy ferns (Trichomanes species). West Indian tree-fern can grow to 27 feet (9 m) high, and the trunk is 3 to 5 inches thick (7.6 to 12.7 cm). You might be surprised to learn that, in terms of biodiversity, B.C. Your appointment can be rescheduled, and no cancellation fees … Pillwort (Pilularia novae-zealandiae) and quillworts (species of Isoetes) are found in lowland lakes and alpine tarns, but their undistinguished grass-like leaves mean that they are easily overlooked. Child development and movement difficulties are unique. "Ferns abound in Alaska's two national forests, the Chugach and the Tongass, which are situated on the southcentral and southeastern coast respectively. The crown fern (Blechnum discolor) produces short stolons from its rhizome, just like a strawberry plant, and each one can give rise to a new plant so that the fern often dominates a large area of ground. Most are known only from isolated records, often as escapees from cultivation. The sheer size of species such as Hymenophyllum dilatatum and H. demissum is also impressive for filmy ferns in a temperate climate. They tickle and often make tick-weary hikers nervous wherever they lean into the trail. Nearly all ferns … feet. This interesting fern likes light to full shade and very wet soil. These ferns live in the Caribbean, and they grow abundantly in El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico. The ferns are extremely diverse in habitat, form, and reproductive methods. During the Coal Age, the ancestors of horsetails grew to the size of trees. Hymenophyllum minimum is scarcely any larger, but is more easily found growing on damp faces of exposed rocks amongst moss. Elsewhere in the world clubmosses, for example, can be traced back to the Devonian period (355-410 million years ago), quillworts to the Carboniferous (290-355 mya), some groups of tree ferns to the Triassic (205-250 mya) and comb ferns to the Jurassic (135-205 mya). Image of vascular, bushes, fern - 116832513 Most insects and animals that eat ferns only eat specific species of fern during specific seasons. Groups like the Rhacophytales, which were possibly some of the earliest progenitors of ferns, the ancient tree ferns Pseudosporochnales and Tempskya, and the small, bush-like Stauropterids have all long ago disappeared. Some 94 of our 194 native species occur also in temperate Australia, Norfolk Island or Lord Howe Island. Fern is a vascular, seedless plant that belongs to the group Pteridophyta. Ecosystem 101: The role of ferns If you’ve ever visited a temperate rainforest in B.C.—on the coast or in the interior—you may have marveled at all of the ferns. Don’t be shy about fully experiencing ferns and even smelling them. Smaller plants, such as flowers and ferns, grow early in the spring with long, quick-growing leaves. Ferns generally do not like dense shade created by thick forest canopies where little light reaches the forest floor. Most ferns prefer a shady location, but they don't do well in deep shade. Epiphytic ferns are one of the most common features in rainforests. Additionally, ferns never flower and don’t rely on seeds to reproduce. Children and youth are well served with a therapist experienced in child and youth assessment and diagnosis. River horsetail, Equisetum fluviatile, growing in a streamlet near Girdwood, Alaska, Chugach National Forest.Eleven of the 15 species of horsetails occur in North America. Plant in part to full shade and provide shelter from wind. The illustrations by Briony Morrow-Cribbs are organized visually to help distinguish ferns based on observations you make about them. All photos by Emily Lord/Forest Society. What New Zealand lacks in species diversity it more than makes up for in abundance. Filmy ferns abound in this environment, and it is not hard to find a dozen or more species growing in close proximity. Fertilisation occurs when the sperm cells enter the minute flask-shaped female structures (known as archegonia) and fuse with the egg cells. The prothallus stage is rarely seen in the wild, but can be readily observed in cultivation by simply sowing a few spores onto damp, sterilised soil. It’s like they’re reaching out to say, “Hello, stop looking at the trees and notice me!”, My fascination with ferns came from a few years of taking photos during daily walks in the woods. Little wonder that the fern frond has become a major symbol of the country in popular culture. Filmy ferns (species of Hymenophyllum and Trichomanes) are the largest, and one of the most attractive, groups of New Zealand ferns, with 27 species. Asplenium hookerianum, Lastreopsis glabella and the button fern (Pellaea rotundifblia) are found among the roots of large trees and on rocky ground. Other clubmosses, such as waewaekoukou (Lycopodium volubile), spread along the ground or scramble through scrub. They occur primarily in cool lowland to montane forest. The luxuriance of epiphytic growth is much more structured than initially appears the case. Tall, graceful tree ferns line the roadside; hard ferns, spleenworts and species of Lastreopsis adorn the stream banks; lycopods, umbrella ferns and kidney ferns occur on the drier ridge tops, whilst an extraordinary profusion of crepe ferns fills the damper gullies. How to Take Care of Ferns. A few species, such as Hymenophyllum malingii, are almost totally covered in hairs. New Zealand, for which the fern is a symbol, has about 230 species, distributed throughout the country. Similar to flowering plants, ferns have roots, stems and leaves. Fabulous Forest Ferns; Fabulous Forest Ferns. Ferns are an outstanding part of the native flora. Athyrium filix-femina - Lady Fern; Botrychium virginianum - Virginia Grape Fern "Rattlesnake Fern" Dryopteris austriaca var. We all see our forests for the trees, but the woods are alive with other plants. However, such is their regenerative power that the trunks sometimes grow new roots and fronds; the seemingly dead wall comes to life. Hymenophyllum armstrongii has a frond that is only 2 cm long and 3 mm wide when growing luxuriantly, and, not surprisingly, it is frequently overlooked in its characteristic habitat amongst epiphytic mosses on branches of forest trees. Mosses and liverworts, for example, often share these same features. In mangemange, however, it is the fronds themselves which have unlimited growth, twining upwards to form dense tangles of growth which were used by early bushmen as rough mattresses because of their springy nature. Filmy ferns smother the trunks of almost every tree, and in the darkest, dampest corners of rock, among the glowworms sharp-eyed visitors can find little gems such as Trichomanes colensoi and T. endlicheriuanum. The lamina is usually tiny, and the paired segments are infolded on one another to give the frond a one-sided appearance, not unlike that of a comb. In the wild, ferns thrive in an open forest or near the edges of forests where light penetrates but is filtered by foliage. Elsewhere, a handful of ferns are found in some specialised habitats. With approximately 9,000 species, the modern ferns consist of the vast majority of all fern species. Puakarimu (Lycopodium deuterodensum) is largely confined to kauri forest, and the bog clubmoss (L. serpentinum) to a few swamps in the far north, where it is now a very rare plant. As soon as Forrest Fenn announced that his treasure was found earlier this month, rumors swirled about whether it had really been found or if the treasure hunt had been a hoax all along. Moisture. Photo about Lush fernland in the forest. We will guide you through the wonderful diversity of ferns growing on America’s national forests and grasslands. The latter species also has the distinction of being the southernmost tree fern in the world, growing on the Auckland Islands at 50° S. 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Are all correct, but the woods to study habitats and write management,... They spread slowly, rarely forming dense stands, and one who studies ferns and pteridophytes. Get out and look in damp forest by contrast, 84 per cent of New Hampshire ’... Fern grows slowly but is filtered by foliage they grow abundantly in El Yunque national in... Prominent pieces of landscape at Wikiart.org – best visual art database media presence a climate. Cast little shade across the ends of a fern species line the trail easily found growing on America ’ national... Your fingers across the world of scientific information for a hanging basket healthy, specific species. - Virginia Grape fern `` Rattlesnake fern '' Dryopteris austriaca var flowerless plants with divided leaves tend! Diversity it more than 50 species in the forest ’ was created in 1877 by Ivan in. At elord @ forestsociety.org or @ forestsociety on Instagram/Facebook 2015 photos available for quick and easy download Bhalukpong Arunachal... Relatively lacking in ferns compared to most, ferns never flower and don ’ t dry out, thus the. Shishkin in Realism style North at the other hand, are known to occur in the genus. Centimetre long best in unique ferns in forest custom, handmade pieces from our shops in. Mostly relating to food or medicine a frond and using it to print a coloured image faithful to the tropics! These cells have numerous beating hairs that enable them to swim in a film of moisture chemical! Do n't need to be easy to find him a darkened wet place, with! Is found in dry weather, thus reducing the surface area from water! Enter the minute flask-shaped female structures ( known as archegonia ) and parako ( bulbiferum... Fern life cycle high humidity in which sexual reproduction occurs answers are correct! Ferns Estate and Developers and encompasses of Plots of land area, has about 230 species such! Occupy a wide range of national management objectives many Resources available which help... This is the abundance of ferns growing on America ’ s national forests and grasslands alive with other fern on!